Russia’s not-so-covert war against the interim authorities in Kyiv is beginning to take on the characteristics of a serious civil conflict, as tactics directed from Moscow appear designed to amplify or otherwise leverage discontent among a minority of ethnic Russians living across eastern and southern Ukraine. In response, the United States has deployed troops to Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, sent air assets to Romania and Poland, and deployed a U.S. Navy ship to the Black Sea, all on a bilateral basis. Meanwhile, a multilateral response by NATO continues to unfold. Although some have referred to NATO’s efforts so far as “toothless,” the reality is that the alliance has contributed substantive assets to date while looking to do more. Nevertheless, Washington is confronted with the questions of whether, when, and how to leverage critical allies and other partners in safeguarding shared interests in the post-ISAF security environment. For example, how can the United States get European allies to shoulder their share of the defense burden in Europe and beyond? How will the United States work with Pacific allies and key partners to maintain their security and stability throughout Asia? And what policy tools, including Landpower, are most effective and most efficient at helping Washington to achieve these goals?